Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology

APR 2018

An evidence-based, peer-reviewed journal for practicing clinicians in the field of dermatology

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53 JCAD JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND AESTHETIC DERMATOLOGY April 2018 • Volume 11 • Number 4 C O M M E N T A R Y to repeat the biopsy. Based on these studies, it seems erroneous to conclude that shave removal (e.g., scoop shave, saucerization, tangential excision) of pigmented lesions produces an aesthetic harm when used to sample pigmented lesions. The second flaw in the USPSTF statement regarding cosmetic harms is the inference that fusiform excisional biopsies are the major approach to sampling suspicious lesions and must be performed for proper melanoma diagnosis. Direct comparisons of excisional versus shave biopsies have not been performed, but it is true that deeper and longer skin incisions are more likely to produce worse cosmetic results. 10 However, the zeitgeist of sampling suspected melanomas has shifted away from full-thickness excisions that require suturing. Numerous studies reveal that the most common methods of biopsying lesions suspicious for melanoma are non-excisional (e.g., shave or scoop-shave). 11–13 Indeed, consensus guidelines from the American Academy of Dermatology (AAD) support biopsy of suspicious pigmented lesions with shave removal if performed to a plane beneath the anticipated depth of the lesion. 14 Sentinel lymph node results, tumor recurrence, and disease-specific survival—long touted as the primary reasons for full-thickness excisional biopsy—are not impaired with shave biopsy. 11,12,15,16 It should be noted that patients concerned with self-identified atypical nevi on their body experience psychological distress until they are provided a skin exam by a clinician who concludes that the lesions in question do not require biopsy. 17,18 Patients undergoing biopsy for a suspicious pigmented lesion experience elevated anxiety until they receive a final pathologic diagnosis. Interestingly, patient anxiety decreases after being told of the diagnosis regardless of whether the lesion is malignant or benign. 18 These data suggest that the "unknown" induces psychological distress, and patients with suspicious nevi benefit from biopsy for pathologic confirmation. Since the current standard of care necessitates removal of clinically suspicious nevi, it would be ethically dubious to investigate how patients feel if suspicious nevi are not biopsied. In summary, the USPSTF's evaluation of the aesthetic harms of skin biopsy does not accurately reflect the existing body of evidence and current state of practice. Stating that "excision-related harms are important because initial management with biopsy alone is not sufficient for removing the entire lesion" 1 is deceiving to those that screen patients for melanoma. Biopsy of pigmented lesions with methods other than fusiform excision can be performed with high satisfaction to reliably diagnose melanoma without compromising oncologic and aesthetic outcomes. The USPSTF might be well served to reevaluate their analysis of potential harms from screening so that future patients are not inadvertently harmed from delayed detection of melanoma. REFERENCES 1. Force USPST, Bibbins-Domingo K, Grossman DC, et al. Screening for skin cancer: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. JAMA. 2016;316:429–35. 2. Tsao H, Weinstock MA. Visual inspection and the US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation on skin cancer screening. JAMA. 2016;316:398–400. 3. Nahar VK, Mayer JE, Grant-Kels JM. The case for skin cancer screening with total-body skin examinations. JAMA Oncol. 2016;2:999–1001. 4. Swetter SM, Geller AC, Halpern AC. What the USPSTF "Insufficient" skin cancer screening recommendation means for primary care clinicians and dermatologists. JAMA Dermatol. 2016;152:973–975. 5. Linos E, Katz KA, Colditz GA. Skin cancer-the importance of prevention. JAMA Intern Med. 2016;176:1435–1436. 6. Waldmann A, Nolte S, Geller AC, et al. Frequency of excisions and yields of malignant skin tumors in a population-based screening intervention of 360,288 whole-body examinations. Arch Dermatol. 2012;148:903–910. 7. Gambichler T, Senger E, Rapp S, Alamouti D, Altmeyer P, Hoffmann K. Deep shave excision of macular melanocytic nevi with the razor blade biopsy technique. Dermatol Surg. 2000;26:662–666. 8. Dowling NA, Jackson AC, Honigman RJ, Francis KL. Psychological characteristics and outcomes of elective cosmetic surgery patients: the influence of cosmetic surgery history. Plast Surg Nurs. 2011;31:176–184. 9. Ferrandiz L, Moreno-Ramirez D, Camacho FM. Shave excision of common acquired melanocytic nevi: cosmetic outcome, recurrences, and complications. Dermatol Surg. 2005;31:1112–1115. 10. Dunkin CS, Pleat JM, Gillespie PH, Tyler MP, Roberts AH, McGrouther DA. Scarring occurs at a critical depth of skin injury: precise measurement in a graduated dermal scratch in human volunteers. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2007;119:1722–1732; discussion 1733–1734. 11. Mir M, Chan CS, Khan F, Krishnan B, et al. The rate of melanoma transection with various biopsy techniques and the influence of tumor transection on patient survival. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2013;68: 452–458. 12. Mendese G, Maloney M, Bordeaux J. To scoop or not to scoop: the diagnostic and therapeutic utility of the scoop-shave biopsy for pigmented lesions. Dermatol Surg. 2014;40:1077–1083. 13. Farberg AS, Rigel DS. A comparison of current practice patterns of US dermatologists versus published guidelines for the biopsy, initial management, and follow up of patients with primary cutaneous melanoma. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2016;75: 1193–1197 e1. 14. Bichakjian CK, Halpern AC, Johnson TM, et al. Guidelines of care for the management of primary cutaneous melanoma. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2011;65:1032–1047. 15. Martin RC 2nd, Scoggins CR, Ross MI, et al. Is incisional biopsy of melanoma harmful? Am J Surg. 2005;190: 913–917. 16. Mills JK, White I, Diggs B, Fortino J, Vetto JT. Effect of biopsy type on outcomes in the treatment of primary cutaneous melanoma. Am J Surg. 2013;205:585–590; discussion 590. 17. Hoorens I, Vossaert K, Pil L, et al. Total-body examination vs lesion-directed skin cancer screening. JAMA Dermatol. 2016;152:27–34. 18. Al-Shakhli H, Harcourt D, Kenealy J. Psychological distress surrounding diagnosis of malignant and nonmalignant skin lesions at a pigmented lesion clinic. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2006;59: 479–486. JCAD

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