Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology

MAR 2017

An evidence-based, peer-reviewed journal for practicing clinicians in the field of dermatology

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JCAD JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND AESTHETIC DERMATOLOGY March 2017 • Volume 10 • Number 3 E 1 Introduction An inoculation incident can happen to anyone—a staff member, patient, visitor, or contractor. Inoculation risk infections are primarily bloodborne and pose a risk to those in whom blood-to- blood contact occurs (including hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]). 1 Incidence A Royal College of Nursing (RCN) survey carried out in 2008 of 4,407 nurses found that just under half (48%) had been injured with a needle or sharp previously used on a patient and that 52 percent of those surveyed feared an injury. A significant number felt that they had received no or little training from their employer. 2 A similar survey carried out among a group of United Kingdom surgeons showed that 44 percent anonymously admitted to having a needle-stick injury. Only 3 of the 33 (9%) who sustained a needle- stick injury said that they followed the agreed local policy. 3 Current data compiled by Public Health England in December 2014 warns that healthcare workers still remain at risk from bloodborne viruses. 4 Signs and Symptoms of Edema Edema is characterized by the presence of swelling within or beneath the skin, it may be pitting (holds an indentation after digital pressure) or non-pitting (springs back into place after applying pressure). Edema may be tense due to the position and anatomical structures restricting the swelling, but often it is soft and easily compressible to palpation. It has a different consistency and is distinguishable from the presence of a foreign body (such as dermal filler), which tends to be more defined and firm. If the area is red and warm, infection needs to be considered (see ACE Group Guideline on Acute Skin Infection). 5 Management of Sharps Injuries or Splash Incidents Sharon King, RN, NIP Definition Sharps injury: Exposure to blood or body fluids caused by laceration or puncture of the skin (these can include bites or scratches). Sharps include needles, scalpels, broken glass or any items that my lacerate or puncture the skin. Splash Incident: Where blood or body fluids come into contact with the eyes, mouth, broken skin, or mucous membranes. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND AESTHETIC DERMATOLOGY Aesthetic complications Guidelines

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