Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology

FEB 2018

An evidence-based, peer-reviewed journal for practicing clinicians in the field of dermatology

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36 JCAD JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND AESTHETIC DERMATOLOGY Feburary 2018 • Volume 11 • Number 2 R E V I E W REFERENCES 1. Vashi NA, Kundu RV. Facial hyperpigmentation: causes and treatment. Br J Dermatol. 2013;169 Suppl 3:41–56. 2. Farshi S. Comparative study of therapeutic effects of 20% azelaic acid and hydroquinone 4% cream in the treatment of melasma. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2011;10(4):282–287. 3. Kircik LH. Efficacy and safety of azelaic acid (AzA) gel 15% in the treatment of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation and acne: a 16-week, baseline- controlled study. J Drugs Dermatol. 2011;10(6):586–90. 4. Wang Z, Li X, Yang Z, et al. Effects of aloesin on melanogenesis in pigmented skin equivalents. Int J Cosmet Sci. 2008;30(2):121–130. 5. Gillbro JM, Olsson MJ. The melanogenesis and mechanisms of skin-lightening agents--existing and new approaches. Int J Cosmet Sci. 2011;33(3):210–221. 6. Zhu W, Gao J. The use of botanical extracts as topical skin-lightening agents for the improvement of skin pigmentation disorders. J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc. 2008;13(1): 20–24. 7. Choi S, Lee SK, Kim JE, et al. Aloesin inhibits hyperpigmentation induced by UV radiation. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2002;27(6):513–515. 8. Nattapong S, Omboon L. A new source of whitening agent from a thai mulberry plant and its betulinic acid quantitation. Nat Prod Res. 2008;22(9):727–734. 9. Singh SK, Baker R, Wibawa JI, et al. The effects of sophora angustifolia and other natural plant extracts on melanogenesis and melanin transfer in human skin cells. Exp Dermatol. 2013;22(1):67–69. 10. Zubair S, Mujtaba G. Comparison of efficacy of topical 2% liquiritin, topical 4% liquiritin and topical 4% hydroquinone in the management of melasma. J Pakistan Assoc Dermatologist 2009;19:158–163. 11. Alvin G, Catambay N, Vergara A, Jamora MJ. A comparative study of the safety and efficacy of 75% mulberry (morus alba) extract oil versus placebo as a topical treatment for melasma: a randomized, single- blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Drugs Dermatol. 2011 Sep;10(9):1025–1031. 12. Leyden JJ, Shergill B, Micali G, et al. Natural options for the management of hyperpigmentation. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2011;25(10):1140–1145. 13. Rendon MI, Gaviria JI. Review of skin-lightening agents. Dermatol Surg. 2005;31(7 Pt 2):886,9; discussion 889. 14. Yokota T, Nishio H, Kubota Y, Mizoguchi M. The inhibitory effect of glabridin from licorice extracts on melanogenesis and inflammation. Pigment Cell Res.1998;11(6):355–361. 15. Makino ET, Mehta RC, Banga A, et al. Evaluation of a hydroquinone-free skin brightening product using in- vitro inhibition of melanogenesis and clinical reduction of ultraviolet-induced hyperpigmentation. J Drugs Dermatol. 2013;12(3):s16–20. 16. Costa A, Moises TA, Cordero T, Alves CR, Marmirori J. Association of emblica, licorice and belides as an alternative to hydroquinone in the clinical treatment of melasma. An Bras Dermatol. 2010;85(5):613–620. 17. Amer M, Metwalli M. Topical liquiritin improves melasma. Int J Dermatol. 2000;39(4):299–301. 18. Mauricio T, Karmon Y, Khaiat A. A randomized and placebo-controlled study to compare the skin- lightening efficacy and safety of lignin peroxidase cream vs. 2% hydroquinone cream. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2011;10(4):253–259. 19. Draelos ZD. A split-face evaluation of a novel pigment- lightening agent compared with no treatment and hydroquinone. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2015;72(1):105– 107. 20. Lajis AF, Hamid M, Ariff AB. Depigmenting effect of kojic acid esters in hyperpigmented B16F1 melanoma cells. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2012;2012:952452. 21. Monteiro RC, Kishore BN, Bhat RM, et al. A comparative study of the efficacy of 4% hydroquinone vs 0.75% kojic acid cream in the treatment of facial melasma. Indian J Dermatol. 2013;58(2):157,5154.108070. 22. Deo KS, Dash KN, Sharma YK, et al. Kojic acid vis-a-vis its combinations with hydroquinone and betamethasone valerate in melasma: a randomized, single blind, comparative study of efficacy and safety. Indian J Dermatol. 2013;58(4):281–285. 23. Lee do H, Oh IY, Koo KT, et al. Reduction in facial hyperpigmentation after treatment with a combination of topical niacinamide and tranexamic acid: a randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled trial. Skin Res Technol. 2014;20(2):208–212. 24. Castanedo-Cazares JP, Larraga-Pinones G, Ehnis-Perez A, et al. Topical niacinamide 4% and desonide 0.05% for treatment of axillary hyperpigmentation: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2013;6:29–36. 25. Kim B, Kim JE, Lee SM, et al. N-nicotinoyl dopamine, a novel niacinamide derivative, retains high antioxidant activity and inhibits skin pigmentation. Exp Dermatol. 2011;20(11): 950–952. 26. Herndon JH, Makino ET, Stephens TJ, Mehta RC. Hydroquinone-free skin brightener system for the treatment of moderate-to-severe facial hyperpigmentation. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2014;7(5):27–31. 27. Lei Z. Use of methanolysis for the determination of total ellagic and gallic acid contents of wood and food products. J Agric Food Chem. 2001;49(3):1165–1168. 28. Shimogaki H, Tanaka Y, Tamai H, Masuda M. In-vitro and in-vivo evaluation of ellagic acid on melanogenesis inhibition. Int J Cosmet Sci. 2000;22(4):291–303. 29. Ertam I, Mutlu B, Unal I, et al. Efficiency of ellagic acid and arbutin in melasma: a randomized, prospective, open-label study. J Dermatol. 2008;35(9):570–574. 30. Dahl A, Yatskayer M, Raab S, Oresajo C. Tolerance and efficacy of a product containing ellagic and salicylic acids in reducing hyperpigmentation and dark spots in comparison with 4% hydroquinone. J Drugs Dermatol. 2013;12(1):52–58. 31. Chakraborty AK, Funasaka Y, Komoto M, Ichihashi M. Effect of arbutin on melanogenic proteins in human melanocytes. Pigment Cell Res. 1998;11(4):206–212. 32. Ertam I, Mutlu B, Unal I, Alper S, et al. Efficiency of ellagic acid and arbutin in melasma: a randomized, prospective, open-label study. J Dermatol. 2008;35(9):570–574. 33. Polnikorn N. Treatment of refractory melasma with the MedLite C6 Q-switched nd:YAG laser and alpha arbutin: a prospective study. J Cosmet Laser Ther. 2010;12(3):126; 126–131. 34. Katiyar SK. Green tea and skin. Arch Dermatol (1960). 2000;136(8):989–994. 35. Farris P. Idebenone, green tea, and coffeeberry® extract: new and innovative antioxidants novel antioxidants. Dermatol Ther. 2007;20(5):322–329. 36. Syed T, Aly R, Ahmad SA, et al. Management of melasma with 2% analogue of green tea extract in a hydrophilic cream: a placebo-controlled, double-blind study. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2009;60(3 Suppl 1):AB160. 37. Elmets CA. Cutaneous photoprotection from ultraviolet injury by green tea polyphenols. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2001;44(3):425–432. 38. Swanson, C, Deng, D, Robinson, L, Raleigh, P. Topical turmeric extract in a moisturizing cream formula reduces the appearance of facial spots and fine lines and wrinkles on human facial skin. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2010;62(3 Suppl1):AB19. 39. Arct J, Ratz-Lyko A, Mieloch M, Witulska M. Evaluation of skin colouring properties of curcuma longa extract. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2014;76(4): 374–378. 40. Dorai T, Gehani N, Katz A. Therapeutic potential of curcumin in human prostate cancer -I. curcumin induces apoptosis in both androgen-dependent and androgen- independent prostate cancer cells. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2000;3(2):84–93. 41. Dorai T, Gehani N, Katz A. Therapeutic potential of curcumin in human prostate cancer. II. curcumin inhibits tyrosine kinase activity of epidermal growth factor receptor and depletes the protein. Mol Urol. 2000;4(1):1–6. 42. Dorai T, Cao Y, Dorai B, et al. Therapeutic potential of curcumin in human prostate cancer. III. curcumin inhibits proliferation, induces apoptosis, and inhibits angiogenesis of LNCaP prostate cancer cells in vivo. Prostate. 2001;47(4):293–303. 43. Jiang AJ, Jiang G, Li LT, Zheng JN. Curcumin induces

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